Physical Effects

Physical effects are realized basic laws of nature.

A bionic example for an effect would be the Morpho butterfly which has no pigments on his body but iridescence is caused by structural coloration.

Up to now, there are 323 known physical effects listed. An overview about these effects is provided afterwards. The following links are well suited to describe the effects better.

A german overview:


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Measuring temperature:

Lowering temperature:

Raising temperature:

  • Electromagnetic induction
  • Vortical currents
  • Surface effect
  • Dielectrical heating
  • Electronic heating
  • Electrical charges
  • Absorption of radiation by the substance
  • Thermoelectrical phenomena

Stabilizing temperature:

Indication of position and location of object:

  •  Introduction of marker substances; Transforming the external fields (luminescent traces) or creating their own fields, (ferromagnetic) and hence easily inspected
  • Reflection and emission of light
  • Photo effect
  • Deformation
  • X-ray and radioactive radiation
  • Luminescence
  • Change in electrical and magnetic fields
  • Electrical discharges
  • Doppler effect

Controlling location of objects:

  •  Action of magnetic field on object or on ferro-magnet linked to the object
  • Action of electrical field on charged object
  • Transfer of pressure of liquids and gases
  • Mechanical oscillations
  • Centrifugal forces
  • Heat distribution
  • Light pressure

Control of movement:

Control of aerosol flows (dust, fog, smoke):

  • Use of electrical charges.
  • Electrical and magnetic fields
  • Light pressure

Forming mixtures:

  • Ultrasonics
  • Cavitation (including homogenizers)
  • Diffusion
  • Electrical fields
  • Magneticfield in conjunction with a ferromagnetic substance
  • Electrophoresis
  • Solubilization

Separation of mixtures:

  • Electrical and magnetic separation
  • Changing apparent viscosity of the separator liquid under the effect of electrical and magnetic fields
  • Centrifugal forces
  • Sorption
  • Diffusion
  • Osmosis
  • Flotation
  • Extractive distillation
  • Pressure swing distillation

Stabilization of position of object:

  • Electrical and magnetic fields
  • Fixing in liquids which harden in magnetic and electrical fields
  • Gygroscopic effect
  • Reactive movement

Action of forces. Control. Creation of high pressures:

  • High pressure
  • Effect of a magnetic field via a ferromagnetic substance
  • Phase transitions
  • Heat distribution/expansion
  • Centrifugal forces
  • Changing the hydrostatic forces by changes in the apparent viscosity of magnetic or electrically conducting liquids in a magnetic field
  • Use of explosives
  • Electro-hydraulic effect
  • Optical hydraulic effect
  • Osmosis

Changes in friction:

  • Johnson-Rabeck effect
  • Influence of radiation
  • Kragelsky phenomenon
  • Oscillation
  • effect of abnormal low friction
  • effect of the nonwearing friction

Destruction of object:

  • Electrical discharges
  • Electro-hydraulic effect
  • Resonance
  • Ultrasonics
  • Cavitation
  • Induced radiation/ laser

Accumulation of mechanical and heat energy:

Transfer of energy:

  • Oscillations
  • Deformations
  • Alexandrov Effect
  • Wave movement including electric shock waves
  • Radiation
  • Heat conductivity
  • Convection
  • Phenomenon of reflection of light, (light carriers)
  • Laser radiation
  • Fiber optik
  • Electromagnetic induction
  • Superconductivity

Setting up interaction of mobile, (exchangeable), and immobile, (fixed), objects:

  • Use of electromagnetic fields, (transition from “substance” to “field”)

Measuring dimensions of objects:

  • Measuring inherent frequency of oscillation
  • Applying and reading magnetic and electrical markers

Changing the dimensions of objects:

  • Heat distribution
  • Deformation
  • Magnetic electro-striction
  • Piezoelectrical effect

Checking of state and properties of surfaces:

  • Electrical discharge
  • Reflection of light
  • Electronic emissions
  • Moire effect
  • Radiation

Measuring surface properties:

  • Friction
  • Absorption
  • Diffusion
  • Bauschinger effect
  • Electrical discharges
  • Mechanical and acoustic oscillations
  • Ultraviolet radiation

Inspection of state and properties in volume:

  • Introduction of “marker” substances transforming the external fields, (luminescent traces), or creating their own fields, (ferromagnetic), dependent on the state and properties  of the substance under study
  • Changing the mean electrical resistance depending on the structure and properties of the object
  • Interaction with light
  • Electric and magnetic optical phenomena
  • Polarized light
  • X-ray and radioactive radiation
  • Electronic paramagnetic and nuclear magnetic resonance
  • Magnetic resilient effect
  • Move through the Curie point
  • Hopkins and Barkhausen effects
  • Measuring the inherent frequency of oscillation of an object
  • Ultrasonics, the Moessbauer effect
  • Hall effect

Changing the volume properties of an object:

  • Changing the properties of liquids, (apparent viscosity, fluidity), under the action of electrical and magnetic fields
  • Heat action
  • Phase transitions
  • Ionization under the effect of an electrical field
  • Ultraviolet, X-ray, radioactive radiation
  • Deformation
  • Diffusion
  • Electrical and magnetic fields
  • Bauschlinger effect
  • Thermoelectrical, thermo-magnetic and magnetic-optical effects
  • Cavitation
  • Photochromatic effect
  • Internal photo effect

Creating a given structure.  Stabilization of structure of an object:

Indications of electrical and magnetic fields:

  • Osmosis
  • Static electricity
  • Electrical discharges
  • Piezo- and magneto-electrical effects
  • Electrets
  • Electronic emissions
  • Electro-optical phenomena
  • Hopkins – Barkhausen effect
  • Hall effect
  • Nuclear magnetic resonance
  • Gyromagnetic and magnetic optical phenomena

Indication of radiation:

  • Optical acoustic effect
  • Heat distribution/expansion
  • Photoeffect
  • Luminescence
  • Photoplastic effect

Generation of electromagnetic radiation:

  • Josephson effect
  • Induced radiation
  • Tunnel effect
  • Luminescence
  • Hall effect
  • Cherenkov effect
  • Stokes and anti-Stokes effects

Control of electromagnetic fields:

  • Screening
  • Changing state of environment, for instance, increasing or decreasing its electric conductivity
  • Changing the form of the surface of bodies interacting with fields

Controlling light, light modulation:

  • Refraction and reflection of light
  • Electrical and magnetic optical phenomena
  • Photoelasticity
  • Kerr and Faraday effects
  • Hall effect
  • Franz-Kieldysh effect

Initiation and intensification of chemical changes:

  • Ultrasonics
  • Cavitation
  • Ultraviolet, X-ray, radioactive radiation
  • Electrical discharges
  • Shock waves
  • Mycellarian catalysis
  • Quick reactions at high temperatures

Geometrical Effects:

  • Mobius Strip
  • Rotating Hyperboloid